Pinterest Share on Facebook Share Share on Twitter People often mimic each other’s facial expressions or postures without even knowing it, but new research shows that they also mimic the size of each other’s pupils, which can lead to increased trust. The findings, published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, reveal that participants who mimicked the dilated pupils of a partner were more likely to trust that partner in an investment game, but only when the partner was part of the same ethnic group.“People generally underestimate the importance of pupils, despite the fact that we look into them each day. The pupil provides a rich source of social information — we can force a smile, but we can’t force our pupils to dilate or constrict,” says psychological scientist Mariska Kret of Leiden University, lead author on the study. “Our findings show that humans synchronize their pupil size with others and this behavior — over which we have no voluntary control — influences social decisions.”In previous work, Kret and colleagues found that humans and chimpanzees synchronized their pupil size specifically with members of their own species. The researchers hypothesized that pupil mimicry might be important for the establishment of a bond of trust between two individuals. Dilated pupils are typically perceived as a sign of safety, suggesting that mimicry of another person’s dilated pupils may lead to a sense of mutual trust. Constricted pupils, on the other hand, tend to be perceived as a sign of threat — thus, the researchers did not expect that mimicry of constricted pupils would be associated with trust. Email Kret and colleagues Agneta Fischer and Carsten De Dreu of the University of Amsterdam recruited 61 Dutch university students to participate in an investment game. The students were told that, for each trial, they would see a short video clip of their partner and would then have to decide whether to transfer 5 Euros or 0 Euros to that partner. The clip was actually a manipulated image of a pair of eyes, programmed to show pupils that either dilated, constricted, or remained static over a period of 4 seconds.The participants were told that their investment would be tripled and their partner would then choose what portion of the money (if any) to give back to the participant. Thus, the participant had to make a quick decision about whether they should trust the partner and invest the 5 Euros, in the hope of seeing a greater return. In reality, all of the partners’ choices were determined and randomly assigned by the researchers.As expected, the results showed that participants were more likely to trust partners whose pupils had dilated, especially when the eyes indicated a happy expression.And data captured by eyetracking technology showed that the participants tended to mimic their partners’ pupils, whether they were dilating or constricting.Most importantly, mimicking a partner’s dilating pupils was associated with the decision to invest money — but only when the partner’s eyes had a Western European appearance.According to the researchers, these findings suggest that group membership plays an important role in how we interpret pupil signals. In this study, participants were more likely to trust partners with dilated pupils when they belonged to the same group (Western European descent) than when they didn’t belong to the same group (Asian descent).“The results of the current study further confirm the important role for the human eye in what people love and fear,” the researchers write. “More specifically, pupil mimicry is useful in social interactions in which extending trust and detecting untrustworthiness in others go hand in hand, and it benefits in-group interactions, survival, and prosperity.” LinkedIn
By Joe ChapmanPRESIDENT of the Upper Demerara Football Association (UDFA), Terrence Mitchell, has pled for discipline on the field of play and respect for the sponsors.The president was, at the time, speaking to the ten football clubs contesting the 6th annual GT Beer Football championship which was launched yesterday in the mining town.He said that the teams must show respect for the beverage giants, Banks DIH, which has shown a commitment to developing the sport in Linden by their continued sponsorship.The launch, which took place in the Macaw Boardroom of the Linden Enterprise Network (LEN) saw the UDFA boss laud the six years of sponsorship from the beverage company.Banks DIH Linden Branch Supervisor, Shawn Grant, said the company is looking forward to the continued support coming from the community.There will be cash incentives for the four top teams and individual prizes for outstanding players.The tournament gets going from today with the march-past billed for 16:30hrs, and UDFA has warned that clubs who turn up late for this, as well as their games, will be fined.The first game is set for 19:00hrs between newly crowned GTT senior champions, Eagles United and Capital FC.Eagles will be led by former national midfield player, Clive DeNobrega, as well as Deon Charter, Colwyn Drakes, Kellon Primo, Allan Halley and Yannick.Capital FC will make their debut with a group of youngsters, mainly with school player Andre Mayers joining Tyric McAllister, Duquan Hercules, Seon Barrett, and Tevin Crawford.That game will be followed at 21.00hrs when former champions, Silver Shattas, face the number two club, Net Rockers.Net Rockers will be looking to maintain their rich form recently when they, like Eagles United, played unbeaten in the just concluded League.Among their best performers recently are Denzil Pryce and Clarence Huggins leading them, along with Orande Wills, Joel Isaacs and Mark Wilson. In goal will be Compton Bennet.Their opponents, Silver Shattas, will field a line-up that will have in it players like goalkeeper Kelon Major, young Randy Pickering, Jomain Samuels and Robin Adams.
The Minnesota Vikings (10-4) are back at home tonight to host the Green Bay Packers (11-3) at U.S. Bank Stadium in Minneapolis.The Vikings are looking to build on their 39-10 win over the Chargers last Sunday in Los Angeles. The Packers beat the Bears 21-13 last week at Lambeau.Both teams have already clinched a playoff berth, but the crown for NFC North champion is still undecided. If the Packers win either of their final two games, they’ll be the champs. 360p About Connatix V56490 1080p HD 1/1 Visit Advertiser website GO TO PAGE Skip About Connatix V56490 Auto (360p) 720p HD The title will belong to the Vikings with a win over the Packers tonight and another over the Bears next Sunday, paired with a Packer loss next Sunday in Detroit.NFC North StandingsGreen Bay Packers (11-3)Minnesota Vikings (10-4)Chicago Bears (8-7)Detroit Lions (3-10-1)Enter your number to get our mobile branded appVikings running back Dalvin Cook will not play tonight, listed as ‘out’ for the game. Running back Alexander Mattison is listed as ‘questionable.’The Vikings are 5½ point favorites against the Packers tonight.The game is set to kickoff at 7:15 PM CT. (TV: ESPN, RADIO: 1240 AM & 95.3 FM WJON.)Skol Vikings!Getty ImagesNEXT: Got Playoff Fever? Vikings Post-Season Tickets Now On Sale: Never-mind the fact that the Vikings haven’t actually secured a home playoff game yet, Minnesota Vikings playoff tickets are now on sale.Pete Hanson is on 98.1 Minnesota’s New Country weekday mornings from 5:30 to 10:00.Submit